In FSL, when we create a design using the graphical interface in FEAT, or with the command `Glm`

, we are given the opportunity to define, at the higher-level, the “Group” to which each observation belongs. When the design is saved, the information from this setting is stored in a text file named something as “design.grp”. This file, and thus the group setting, takes different roles depending whether the analysis is used in FEAT itself, in PALM, or in randomise.

What can be confusing sometimes is that, in all three cases, the “Group” indicator does not refer to experimental or observational group of any sort. Instead, it refers to *variance groups* (VG) in FEAT, to *exchangeability blocks* (EB) in randomise, and to either VG or EB in PALM, depending on whether the file is supplied with the options `-vg`

or `-eb`

.

In FEAT, unless there is reason to suspect (or assume) that the variances for different observations are not equal, all subjects should belong to group “1”. If variance groups are defined, then these are taken into account when the variances are estimated. This is only possible if the design matrix is “separable”, that is, it must be such that, if the observations are sorted by group, the design can be constructed by direct sum (i.e., block-diagonal concatenation) of the design matrices for each group separately. A design is not separable if any explanatory variable (EV) present in the model crosses the group borders (see figure below). Contrasts, however, can encompass variables that are defined across multiple VGs.

The variance groups not necessarily must match the experimental observational groups that may exist in the design (for example, in a comparison of patients and controls, the variance groups may be formed based on the sex of the subjects, or another discrete variable, as opposed to the diagnostic category). Moreover, the variance groups can be defined even if all variables in the model are continuous.

In randomise, the same “Group” setting can be supplied with the option `-e design.grp`

, thus defining exchangeability blocks. Observations within a block can only be permuted with other observations within that same block. If the option `--permuteBlocks`

is also supplied, then the EBs must be of the same size, and the blocks as a whole are instead then permuted. Randomise does not use the concept of variance group, and all observations are always members of the same single VG.

In PALM, using `-eb design.grp`

has the same effect that `-e design.grp`

has in randomise. Further using the option `-whole`

is equivalent to using `--permuteBlocks`

in randomise. It is also possible to use together `-whole`

and `-within`

, meaning that the blocks as a whole are shuffled, and further, observations within block are be shuffled. In PALM the file supplied with the option `-eb`

can have multiple columns, indicating multi-level exchangeability blocks, which are useful in designs with more complex dependence between observations. Using `-vg design.grp`

causes PALM to use the *v*– or *G*-statistic, which are replacements for the *t*– and *F*-statistics respectively for the cases of heterogeneous variances. Although VG and EB are not the same thing, and may not always match each other, the VGs can be defined from the EBs, as exchangeability implies that some observations must have same variance, otherwise permutations are not possible. The option `-vg auto`

defines the variance groups from the EBs, even for quite complicated cases.

In both FEAT and PALM, defining VGs will only make a difference if such variance groups are not balanced, i.e., do not have the same number of observations, since heteroscedasticity (different variances) only matter in these cases. If the groups have the same size, all subjects can be allocated to a single VG (e.g., all “1”).